The Israelite and Germanic Tribes

By Paul Senstius



Translated from Die Stämme der Israeliten und Germanen (Leipzig, Germany: Eduard Pfeiffer Verlag, 1931)




The Israelite and Germanic Tribes

By Paul Senstius



With the three Family Tree Records


The Genealogy of the Israelites and Germanic tribes

The family tree of the Burgundians

The political relationships of the Goths


The sources of tribal information vary considerably that relate to the ancient Israelites and subsequent transformation into the various Germanic tribes. These foreign records from Roman and Greek universities, although differing, can be clarified to show the Israelite origin of the Germanic tribes some of which even appeared temporally for a short time alongside Germanic records. This is in contrast to the Israelite records in the Old Testament which, strike a historical bell with the Germanic tribes as being superficially similar to theirs. However, since basic research into Zeus, the university at the time of Christ’s birth enables a corresponding historical picture to be established with further proofs. Of course this statement is inconsequential, if at first one considers the circumstances of the second BC millennium. Now starts the Old Testament period. Here, however, some frequent comments will be necessary on its historical statements which are known only to a narrow circle of the scholars. The historical books of the Old Testament, particularly the 5 books of Moses that refer back to different sources since the Babylonian captivity which are paralleled in subsequent history. If the divorce also remained not without contradiction, particularly until it was delved into in more detail. However, a certain consensus about the questions raised in the Old Testament writings was shown. On the other hand, it remains debatable to a large extent as to how far these sources are historically usable. For this reason, the following presentation will give significant clues.


In order to understand the Old Testament, it is necessary to understand the nature of the historical representation of the people of Israel through the three family patriarchs - fathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob including their sons, grandsons etc. - this popular type of tradition is generally quite transparent. However, the traditional view sometimes impedes one’s understanding of reality. After all, strangely enough, the source material is extensive. The most important are brought to mind here: the story of the birth of Jacob’s sons (Genesis 29-31: 30-24); the enumeration of Jacob’s descendants, who moved to Egypt with him (Genesis 46: 8-27); the second enumeration (Numbers 26: 1-51); the Deborah song a poem from the judges’ period. Jacob’s blessing (Genesis 49). Later the blessing on Moses (Deuteronomy 33), from an earlier king period.


The task placed before me, is to show that the formation of the tribes in the Old Testament is exactly the same as the Germanic tribes. However, of course it is not to be overlooked that the Old Testament Germanic sources over the last 1½ millennium are divided. The reason being, that the names have disappeared over such a long period. However, the disparity is not so great. Firstly, the acceptance of Christianity by the Germanic tribes was a completely new era of tribal nation building and linguistic changes. Their conversion left the greatest mark in all of their 3½ thousand years of history.


As the oldest, i.e. Jacob’s mightiest sons, appear the four elder sons of Leah: Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah. Reuben as the firstborn must be leader of the tribe. However, if we refer back to the Old Testament we will get a surprise. In Deborah’s song, their political idleness is accentuated rather mockingly. Jacob's blessing meant this "first in authority and first in power", that he is not the first in reality, and the Moses' blessing virtually fears his downfall. From the second and third oldest son Simeon and Levi in Jacob's blessing claims, they were distributed in Jacob and distracted in Israel, they would therefore have been worn down completely. Accordingly Deborah’s song skips these two lines with total silence; also it does the same with Moses' blessing as with Simeon and actually also with Levi. Because Levi exuberantly celebrated it here, he is not the main line but only that of the priesthood, joined together apparently but only in a later king era and then from families of quite a different origin to form a new bogus line with a time honoured name. Later tradition gave this pseudo-line accommodation for Simeon as an inheritance, in 48 cities, namely sites where old atrocities had occurred as recorded in Joshua 19, 1-9 but this was illusory as it was expressly said that the divided areas belong to Judah, accordingly as directed. There are no known conquests of Simeon but only conquests of Judah. 1,1-21. This tribe is better than it first seems; closer examination shows it to have the selfsame fate as with the three older tribes here. However, it is characteristic that Deborah’s song is also completely silent over Judah. Genesis 38 mentions that Judah took a Canaanite to wife, therefore this tribe mixes itself early with the Canaanites and consequently the loss of two sons which could only be made good through incest with his daughter-in-law Tamar. Tamar is a Canaanite city in the south. Only through his weakness in associating with her rests succession of Judah to form gradually a considerable new, nascent tribe, that admittedly calling itself Judah, but little to do with its ethnic composition, of the original tribe of same name. Therefore the extremely pertinent fact is­ the probability of Judah being counted as of Jacob’s family, but never to Israel. So, at first the puzzling picture then emerges that the four eldest tribes, that would lead all of the people, until the most wretched remains vanished. One therefore is forced to disprove such suppositions in order to explain the current situation.


Actually, the four tribes emigrated to Europe. First to do so was Reuben. He appears again on the Rhine from the year 451 with his capital in Cologne then under the name rib-uarier. The second component of the name is urverwandt vir with Latin and means men. Therefore the actual name is rib = Reuben. That is ­the place-name in Low German for ­the name itself also shows up in High German, for example: Reiferscheid, Rieferath, Refrath, Rüfferscheid. Most of such names are formed with the prefix “rib”. This form stands linguistically next to: Rebecca ךףקת ribqa; rib is an abbreviation. Rüfferscheid can decline aufrub, therefore is connected with Reuben. This name has another peculiarity ­ in the grammar: ראפז Ruben. Therefore the following should be noted. One wants to justify the popular name interpretation through the writing: sees, a son! It interchanges 'א ‘aleph’ for a consonant, ­ which is a characteristic of the Hebrew and Germanic languages in respect of this letter.­  One frequently finds this א returned as an h ­ with unpractised students א, for example with writing the word: set free. In general, this style of writing can be seen with the word: threatens (drohen) = dräuen; the h in threatens has no etymological meaning ­as ­in a fairly similar case, the word: pulls (ziehen). In the Old High German, one also writes u. a. huns instead of us (uns), but only on the part of few good writers. The Germanic tribes with their good grammar gave up using the א although it is actually indispensable­, since words starting with vowel alliteration finishes is valid. This remains quite un-remarked upon in good German grammar, namely א with the hyphenation. Because one separates the word in the writing: out (heraus) – (her-aus), as if this would be spoken, while with the abbreviation this proves to fall silent. In the Hebrew, this matter is dealt with well as one writes, however, Reuben reads ךאיפר


A son Ruben is פםיא fallu, that is east and Westphalia­, named falahi in the Old High German. Whether the h in פמיא is assimilated or the I through which the א is expressed and still represented. Also son Fallos appears as אםיאפ 'eliab but on the other hand, the father of is אפיךפ 'abiram. Both names are composite with אפי 'abi father and is derived from the Ubier the name given to another designation of the Ribuarier. Already this incomplete treatment of ­the Germanic tribe Ruben informs that he expanded from the Rhine lands even as far as to the Elbe, therefore becoming a powerful political entity.


Now שפעיו, sim'on. The name lived on in ­the Sueben's principal line, the ­Semnonen, that is known as Swabia and Allemannen today. There is ­very significant proof regarding the identification of both these names.­ The Semnonen had a sacred grove in their abode in Brandenburg; Visitors coming there were only allowed to reverence and appear before the deity bound. This outstanding custom is ancient and it alludes to the Old Testament stories of Joseph (Genesis 42, 24) namely: He grasps Simeon from amongst them and bound him before their eyes. As eldest son Simeon appears as n’muel נניאפ which incidentally appears also among Ruben's descendants.


This name appears again in Europe as: Nemeter, found resident in the area of Speyer. This name apparently is virtually another name of Simeon. Our western neighbours call them Allmannen which approximates to Simeon, while according to our eastern neighbours it is Nemeter; and comparable names such as nemet, nimptsch etc.


Then the line of מןי Levi, that is the Bavarians. Because from Levis' sons קחה qehat and מךל m‘rari descendents of the Quaden and Markomannen. However it is extremely strange that the name Levi vanished completely. Because Levi is essentially identical with מאח Leah, a name of a so far reaching meaning, that its disappearance is very striking. I will come back to this later. In Bavaria, there is a river swamp called moss, for example Donau-Moos, Erdinger moss. This name has a special meaning which is connected, with the most important man of the Bavarian tribe, namely Moses. The Old Testament (Exodus 2, 8) attributes his name to the king’s daughter because she had pulled him out of the water. In the Hebrew, the name doesn't have anything to do with the water; in the Egyptian it is called also msw the only child. In contrast in the Bavarian, his name means the man of fluxion - swamp; German names like Mosen are identical with Moses.


Now ןהירה Juda. He appears in High German as Juthungen, and in Anglo-Frisian as Jutes. Since the Juthungen appear in the present day as part of the principal palatinate of Thuringia, so one will have to look at Juthungen as a name for all ancient Germans, who at about the time of Christ’s birth had their seat in the area of Regensburg to Magdeburg. Later I will come back to the names of the Thuringians in a more specific sense. Originally the Thuringians had their home farther north so were able to shake hands with the Anglo-Frisians. Although Anglo-Frisian and High German linguistically appear to be distinctly separated but this cannot be regarded as an argument in summing up against their inclusion in the tribe of Judah. Also the tribe of Ruben includes several branches just as in our present-day states within the empire, especially striking is Oldenburg.­ There were also, of course, corresponding state structures in times past. For the Northern part of Judah, the name of the Saxon still is important. At this time the name Saxon was still so new at the beginning of our history that Tacitus was able to skip the name completely. Ptolemus­ names them as being in Holstein and in the adjoining areas as the Φαϱοϭειοί. That is the old name; then the most important son of Judah is called פכיו pherez; a derivative of Tamar which literary means only a reinforcement of the root that was a residue amongst the Canaanites. These Farodinen later have given the city of Verden-upon-Aller its name. All were given this name, which is expressly recorded in that area and the city - Storwarn, who were a branch of the Saxons from Holstein who settled there in the general movement of the German Germanic tribes towards the southwest. The son of Pharez has given the name חמיפ chamul to the town of Hamelin. Is it correct to attribute the famous Pied Piper to heavy losses of young men, one will have at best to think of the Battle of  Hormah, in which Judah as the vanguard of the army had suffered heavy loses (Numbers 14; 45, 2, 1-9). Some no doubt evoke the Chasuarier, the Has-men of old. Firstly, the usual name explanation: men of the hare, is therefore unlikely because centuries after they had exchanged their homes on the creeks of the river Rhine with areas which would still be called after them. This interpretation can not be bettered, if instead of the hare they rely on the hare province. This is rather named for the Chasuariern.


The tribal Old Testament name is Chezron העךון. It appears as Reuben’s son or grandson of Judah’s Pharez. His inclusion was the subject of contention between the two tribes. In German history the Chasuarier have unequivocally stayed with Reuben, as well as the Amsivarier whose name interpretation: Emsmanner (Amisia = Ems) is slightly less important, but it is also often written as Amsivarii, or more often as Ampsivarii. Which certainly on the other hand belonged to the Angrivarii of Judah, and they were later called Engem, because the name is derived from Judah’s eldest son of עי Er who migrated from Asia to Germany in their entirety. The consonant צ is well represented by tens, but as such it cannot stand in the Germanic language as an initial sound, as it would have added a vowel.


The preliminary evidence of the four elder Leah tribes on European soil shows that they constitute the group of West Germanic tribes which are the bulk of the Germanic tribes, so they have in fact, been leaders among the entire Germanic and Israelite people.


Now the second group of the people, are the children of Bilhah, Dan and Naphtali. With פכחת Bilhah we come to the concubines of Jacob. Rachel gave her maid to her husband to wife, with the intention of marriage so that the issue resulting from it would be able to lay claim to an inheritance under the law. Quite recently a similar situation arose with a Japanese Empress. Since she was childless, she gave her husband one of her servants. And the son that was born was legally the son of the Emperor ruler. Similar circumstances were known to the Germanic tribes, as might prevail under monogamy. Therefore the well known expression: Child and cones, with which cone marks the child of the concubine. If Christianity might also demand monogamy, the actual court etiquette was strict, not merely do the Merovingians and older Carolingians retain the custom of concubines as with the Bourbons, whose sons may be maitresse en titre official person of the court, only surpassed by the Queen in rank. The mistresses of Louis XIV children according to that convention were even accorded an inheritance. It follows then, that the lines of concubines’ sons that have less authority, other than that, they are Germanic people and Israelites equally of good standing as the sons of Leah and Rachel:


 Dan, the eldest son of Bilhah appears in the Old Testament as an insignificant tribe, who tried in vain to obtain and take possession of territory westwards from Jerusalem. He also allegedly reached the Mediterranean at various times, as told out in Deborah’s song: Dan - why does he stay in his ships? (Judges 5:17); in reality it is probably taken from the relevant passage (צףך) and testimony in the Book of Judges (1 34-35) who was just hanging around as poor landless dock workers. The pressure exerted by the Philistines was so desperate that all the rest of the tribe, of only 600 able-bodied strong men, could not ease such a dire situation any more than the half-upright men of 16-60 years who bore arms were able to deal with the contemptuous outrage at the source springs of the Jordan, a new, but relatively small area they had conquered at that time (Judges 17-18). Since taking possession of the area which was the territory of their brother of the neighbouring tribe of Naphtali נפהפ because on the map their state seemed quite magnificent but, all the tribes in Galilee had in actuality only enclaves within the solid Canaanite cities which were only subjugated during the king era. But there was little assimilation. To a much lesser extent, it is the same picture as the four previously discussed Leah tribes. However, the weak remnants of these two tribes remained at home in the East.


And in Europe? The children of Bilhah appear as North Germanic tribes. Dan joined with Judah, similarly the Juthungi and Jutes with the Danes. At the time of the migration, the Danes were still occupying southern Scandinavia, in the area known as the Skåne and today occupy the west coast of Sweden. The Jutes and Angles possessed Jutland and the island areas and were occupied as fishermen. So the tribe of Judah was also there. Only after the tribe of Judah’s departure did the Danes come into the possession of these areas, known today as Denmark. The Swedes and Danes are a special language group compared to the Norwegians. Accordingly, the only son of Dan שהחם šucham (Numbers 26.42) (but in Genesis 46.23 described as חשים chušim). However, this should probably be more correctly read as swecham שףהם who are the Svea, Suehans or the Swedes. Jordanes described the Danes as descendants (stirps) of Sweden. During the earliest period it was undisputed that the honour of primacy went to the Danes, followed next by Naphtali who is a relative and full brother of Dan who separated to make a clear division between the two peoples, and became known as the Norwegians. According to Germanistics, the main part of the Norwegians arrived recently, which accords with the Old Testament account. The surest proof is jachz'el יחאאמ Naphtali’s, son the shortened name (without אמ God) lives on in the Egdir, as a tribe at the southernmost tip of Norway. If the Germans interpreted the name Naphtali as nephews, that is Thalis (offspring), so he could live on as Thilir in the ski resort known as Telemark. This perhaps explains the Roman Greek name Thule as a term for Norway.  The old name given to the inhabitants in the Oslo area is the Raumaricii. Now the blessing of Moses said of Naphtali: that he would take possession of the Sea in the Southland, however, this was not referring to the Sea of Galilee but their later home in a northern land. The name of Southland ףדום could therefore be very well derived from an alternative form of Raumariken. There can be no doubt that the Norwegians are descended from Naphtali, yet as always remains the remarkable facts that we have been presented here with the relevant knowledge to determine this. The north Germanic tribes have always been numerically smaller compared to the West Germanic tribes, which is explained by their less legitimate derivation from a concubine. The Great and Little Belt, the Baltic Sea, are named after Bilhah, or alternatively as bilhat פמהה probably refers to one of the names which the Danes would be called after additionally as the Beorht-Danes. As well as Danes.


Following on are the two sons of second concubine; גכפה zilpah, namely Gad and Asher. Here again we find the same weakness as in the elder offshoots in the east. Perhaps Asher was virtually the weakest with their narrow border strip where the Canaanite influence prevailed even more strongly than in the hinterland. In contrast Gad was in the Transjordan and was the preferred of the two sons who also had lofty ideals but was only of moderate importance in the history of Israel. The focus of these two Zilpah offshoots would be in Europe. Here in fact they are represented as East Germans under the names of Goths and Lygians or Vandals.


First, Asher אשד. His name as Aser appears in the Sciri, which is probably another name for the Bastarni, the predecessors of today's Goths in southern Russia. To explain the other name Bastarni, we need to match it with the names of all the European children of Asher and perhaps in respect of all East Germanic tribes that was later narrowed down to a single offshoot – the Vandals. Another tribe of the Vandals were the Naharnavalen which can be split into naharna-vali. This name will be partitioned: naharna-vali. The second part of this name corresponds אכ 'el God, his first is nah'rain נהכיז, which is the Syrian form, mutatis mutandis. Egyptian form - Naharina; in the Old Testament it is called `אךפכהכים ram'nah'raim - Syria of the two rivers, namely the Euphrates and the Tigris, which meant northern Syria known as the country of Haratt. The Naharnavalen were admirers of a North-Syrian deity where there was a temple in Hierapolis, a city situated to the west of the Euphrates not far from Haran. The deity was a female - עכה (nath) which equates to Greek-Semitic inscription of the Attiene (Anath later called the Vandilier) and turns up in several Palestine place-names which is a special name for astoreth or Astarte עשפדפ. Therefore, the name of the Bastarnen is derived from the Greek prefix ‘b’ and corresponds to v when compared with Latin: Greek – Βανδίλοι, Latin – Vandili. If a divine pair of brothers were admired in the grove of the Naharnavalen, then it would be Gad and Asher that were meant - צד Gad in comparison צד Gad - lucky deity and likewise אשך 'ašer and אשנה sera for Astarte. A priest would wear female jewellery to represent the two brothers as god deities which points to the horrors of Syrian and Armenian voluntary religious self emasculation by wearing female clothing to appease a variety of gods associated with Astarte. The two subdivisions of the Lygians - the Όμανοί and Βούοτϱ corresponding to Asher‘s sons Berra נפכה and Jimna בריצע. The names are equivalent to כשךח or נשץ - šaw‘er or Lugii; i.e. in Germanic languages it is translated into liar. Cherber הבד another grandson of Asher (true) = Estonian.


Far more important than the tribe of Asher, was that of his brother Gad. First, the blessing of Jacob (Genesis 49.19) והדא זנידני גדיר גר עמב ינד. Gad, a troop shall overcome him, but he shall overcome at last. It is noteworthy that these words form a pun of the tribal name which remarkably forms ינהנף j'gudennu and ינד jagud which leads to the pronunciation “Gud” = Gutones = Goths.


The Goths then divided into West and East Goths. Now a son of Gad called אפלן Zephon (north), appears in Europe as Taifali or Thaifali, who emerged as a fourth Gothic tribe the Gepids who became the South Goths. What then of the heavenly directive regarding tribal formation? According to the book of Numbers Chap 2, the tribes were in a rectangular formation and allotted positions according to the cardinal points of the compass – on the East; Judah, Issachar and Zebulun. On the South; Reuben and Simeon, Gad. On the West Rachel’s offspring; Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin. On the North; Dan, Asher and Naphtali the rest from the concubines. How then did the Gothic tribes learn of their encampment positions to accord with the compass positions in their Germanic encampment area? The trisection and quartering of the Germanic tribes will be referred to. However, we are instructed in this field with some uncertain assumptions from Greek and Roman reports that have been proved to be defective.


The Western and Eastern Goths have special names, namely Tervingi and Greutungen. I think this is not a name in the strictest sense, but from a military term – Tervingi. My reading of הךהץה terwa = war cries, alert signales; ע as is reflected in the Germanic more correctly by rig, the Hebrew word is entirely consistent with the Gothic name. The Greutungen could perhaps be derived from עךדה Erwa, עךדה “waiting to offer” a military term for a weak spot, it was an honour that the Greutungen troops were used for the most vulnerable section in the war.  As a son of Gad אךי `eri, had a name in an older imperfect document that could stand for מדיה` Erja, so therefore the Greutungen could be descended from this son of Gad. A name much more easily understood are the Gepids who also have a military name, פפידים גיר k'phirim lions, heathen. Note to the fact that is referred to in the blessing of Jacob, Judah, in the Blessing of Moses to Dan also as known a אדגה young lion, while both lines were doing camp leader’s jobs as gate guard. Gad was also recorded in the Blessing of Moses ניד lion. The d instead of r in the name Gepids could go back to an obscure form of Hebrew writing.


The distribution of the Goths is very strange, the determined attempt to reach not only Eastern, but to reach also West and North Germanic tribes and to form dependencies. Part of Sweden reaching from Gotland to the Gothenburg area took the name of Goths (Gauts). They differed from the West and East Goths with the name of the Greutungen which is detectable in the north. Then there are the Heruli that appear several times in the company of the East Germanic Goths, who come from Gad’s son אןאבי 'ar'eli. A portion of these people took up residence under the protection of Swedish Goths to the north of Scania in Småland, which is perhaps more correctly written as Smalland because שמאבי smali means north. The adjacent Scania will be from the name of Gad’s son שיבי šuni. It will be no coincidence that the name matches the whole of the Scandinavians with the Hillevionen, lugischen and Helväonen. Whereas the Norwegians seem a part of the Gothic Rugii, including Hamden, the descendants of Gad’s son אךור `rod.


Now the Goths by the West Germanic tribes; first the Thuringians. Gotha is the river of the Goths. The name of Thuringia is synonymous with Tervingian, as the Hebrew letters w and r are interchangeable. Likewise it is the same as the Tho­ringern, a Frankish tribe, who came to the west with a Gothic honorary name. Linguistically nothing to do with the other name of Thuringians - Hernun-Duren, who never appear without the admixture of Hermin. I regard this designation as a product of the 6th century BC, and not a question of Old Testament relationships. If the second component of names the Bructeri and Tenchterer men are not contractions of Tervingian, then there is a hitherto unknown pool of Army tribal names, Osner in Osnabrück and at Osning, the correct name of the Teutoburg forest, is uin after the descendants of Gad’s son Osni אזבי'. Much more important are the descendants of Gad son הגי chaggi, namely the Chaucians, a great North Sea nation from the Eins to the Elba, of one and the same people, probably named the Saxons. Many more scholars preferred to assign the Chaucians to the Franks, because this name especially in poetry means Hugen who probably spread further as the chaggi to the Rhineland. Then came the Lombards apparently under Gothic rule. It can be concluded that they were closely related to royal name of king as Audoin, Autharich, probably derived from Simeon’s son אהך 'Ohad, as mentioned in Genesis 46, but not Numbers 26; allegedly Vinniler an old name would equate to kingly names such as Audoin and Alboin derived from the common name (Lango-Barden) name of Germanic Barden barditus battle cries. Barden is a translation of Tervingian. Note here that the depictions on Lombard and Gothic friezes were correct.


Finally, I might mention that the Cherusci who were for a period in Eastphalia providing leadership in the Germanic world; the whole nature of the boom and decline in Greater Cheruscia is so very reminiscent of the Gothic period, being a fulfilment of the story as prefaced and derived from Moses’ blessing. Blessed is he who for whom Gad creates vast space. While the Goths were spreading both west and north, the question is, how we should imagine them? Now it appears that there are no traceable special Gothic additions showing up in any of the dialects that could be described as special Gothic additions. It would then follow that there was no great transfer of Gothic population. It could not be foreseen that there would be so many sub-streams branching off the main Gothic stream. There are probably only a few aristocratic families, who have understood that it was they who seized the spiritual leadership. This turn of events is related to the creation of Germanic literature; approximately at the time of Pericles who skipped the Germanic system for the Hebrew vernacular in his writings. The new font used at this time was an expression of the Gothic language in the new font, so that these fonts more or less reveal the Gothic character; it was only the invading Catholic Christianity which destroyed the dominant position of the Goths. Their exertion of excess pressure was the most radical innovation that had occurred in the political life of the pre-Christian Germanic world. However, this change was already prophesied in the Old Testament. In the census of Israel and in accordance with the camp rules (Numbers 1; 2; 26) Gad was separated from the three other sons of the concubines, following Ruben and Simeon as an equal among the sons of Leah. Gad’s promotion in status of rank is also the story in Judges (Judges II) where Jephthah he is referred to as the son of Gilead. Gilead in the strictest sense is the territory of Gad, more or less the whole of Transjordan. Jephthah was called the son of a Baal woman and was expelled in a most hateful way because of Gad’s descent from a concubine. The daughter, he must sacrifice, is apparently an image of Zilpah in order for Gad to be acknowledged as an equal in respect of privileges with Rachel’s and Lea’s offspring.


The East Germanic tribes stood for ages under the rule of kings, while, with the exception of the Swedes, the other Germanic tribes had republican forms of constitutions. The special status of the East Germanic tribes can be demonstrated in the Old Testament. The blessing of Moses (Deuteronomy 33.21) states that: “And he provided the first part for himself, because there, in a portion of the lawgiver, was he seated; and he came with the heads of the people, he executed the justice of  Yahweh, and his judgments with Israel.” While under Monarchical rule, the tribes inherited their republican constitutions. However, Gad had a monarchical constitution and also in Germany. In place of Princes, there were Gothic Dukes during the period of the Saxon Empire. In II Samuel 17; 27-29, we are in a fortunate position to know something about these Gothic dukedoms. It was reported that Barsillai, the Gileadite from Rogelim came with a great quanity of food and Cooking untensils etc in order to support David and all his people who had fled with him. This was far more than could be reasonably expected from an individual. He could therefore be described as very powerful and rich. The name Barzillai פבזפי is particularly noteworthy because it is a Gothic name. It consists of the components bar-sillai. The first syllable bar means son, which is familiar to us from New Testament names such as Barrabbas, Barnabas, Bartholomew, etc. The Hebrew word for this is אד ben, which can be seen for example in a name like Benjamin.


The replacement of ‘ben’ in the Hebrew language is not explained, as ‘bar’ is derived from a Gothic word baur (to be born) and means the same as our word i.e. son of. The second part of the syllable can be explained by the fact that זבםה Zilpah was from a different branch who would call the ancestress not by this name, but זפה silla, who were therefore a branch of the Vandals (Silings). Which in Hebrew is wrongly written with an I suffix namely זמי sillai, but should have 2 I’s. Written as Barzillai, a son descended from Sillia, for it is not a name but a title – Prince of the Goths. The capital of this Prince is Roggini, named after the Gothic tribe of the Rugii. Now to discuss אאפד 'Ezbon a son of Gad who is only mentioned in Genesis 46 and not at all in Numbers 26. Taking into account the Hebrew B which is quite close would make Ezbon a branch of the Bastarni, the Άτμονοτ. In no other Germanic tribe, besides the Franks, is the descent from the Old Testament as clear as with the Goths.


Following on next, two other tribes from the concubines were Zebulun and Issachar who were descended from Leah. Issachar succeeded despite a series of Canaanite cities separating him from Joseph and carved out an area which was good for Galilean relations. Maybe Issachar was the most powerful tribe in the east amongst the remnants of Leah. In contrast, the neighbouring territory of Zebulun was in an unfavourable situation as was the tribe of Asher, because it was riddled with Canaanite cities. In any case, in Europe, away from their home this had an insignificant effect which is characteristic of these 2 latecomers descended from Leah. The peculiar circumstances associated with Issachar is reflected in the Hebrew spelling of his name which means ןששבד strange and is unique in the Old Testament. The name of the first born son of Issachar פלםק tola ' is derived from “wage” – to bring or receive. However in the Gothic it is Dulger meaning soaked in debt.,  this name fits the people located about the west bank of the lower Elbe known as the Dulgubnii with its tributary of a similar name. The name of the first born son passed down to these Dulgs. On the other hand, the name of the first born פלםק Tola is in agreement with the Dulgubanii and the blessing of Jacob where Issachar was depicted as an ass following his pandering to indulgence, one would also note that this word המד redness is similar to  פןכע of Tola – the scarlet one, which is comparable to the Reudigni again Reds, a sub-branch of the Saxons located in Holstein. From lssachar’s son ןשיב Jašub descended the Schwabians in Schleswig, around Schwabstedt north of the Eider estuary. Here there also appeared the important name Sueben of the Old Testament. This is also true of another son of Issachar מדה puwwa whose descendants were the Bavarians. Another branch was called פןני puni, who could have given their name to the Island of Funen and also to that of the North Sea Jutland island of Fanø. The tribal name of Levi בןה (Lwj – to it joins) includes a verb which means together and in the Hebrew language gives a sense of conjugal union, therefore baji, bajuwarii Bavaria could be a Germanic translation of Levi. This could imply that one half of these people spoke Hebrew while the other half spoke Germanic.


The descendants of Zebulun still occupy the four islands of Sylt, Amrum, Fohr and Helgoland. These islanders have never been called Frisians and they even communicate with themselves in a local dialect because they represent an independent offspring of Jacob - יבכין Bulun. Ptolemy called them the Sabalingier after Bulun’s son םבד Sered which is the Island of Sylt. Note the Syrian permutation of the r and l as in אביו 'Elon, i.e. (son of) – ceremonial tree; actually Föhr Island is the only North Sea island with a forest.


The situation of our two brother tribes seems to have worked out very strangely. One may not infer from the names Suebi and Bayern that when under the Leah tribes they would ever have had a leading position. Under Israel’s camp order they appear as mere appendages of Judah. Those two important names appear to have been only accidentally preserved from the Old Testament in Issachar. The Greco-Roman writers lumped together the Bavarians with the Gallic Bojern. Therefore, the Bojern in Bohemia emerged as Gauls. In reality they were undoubtedly Bavarians, who came into dispute with their half brother Ariovistus. The enemies of his new-fledged rule had to yield their homes. They drove out Prince of Noriker the brother of Ariovistus and then joined his enemies the emerging Helvetii and thereby avoided the fate of their allies. Caesar was ruthless in suppressing the emerging Germanic tribes but supported the weaker tribes in order to provide strength to move against the Gauls. Therefore he moved the Bojern to act as watchdogs over the Äduern, because he did he did not want to admit that from the outset he planned to subjugate the Gauls. He concealed this wisely in accordance the Bojern Germanic folk law to the extent that later generations would be completely deceived.


The youngest, but extremely important tribes were those of Rachel’s sons, Joseph and Benjamin. At first you will find our context very strange. For we have dealt with the descendants of Leah, Bilhah and Silpa namely, the West, North and East Germanic tribes, the question is, how should we accommodate the children of Rachel on European soil? One could initially help with the explanation that would be that Rachel’s descendants were completely left behind in the East. For they were the main body of Israel were in a certain sense, the bearer of the name of Israel alone. Situated especially to the west of the Jordan, was the younger son of Joseph Ephraim between his older brother Manasseh, and your uncle Benjamin, while to the east of the river it was Manasseh alone. But it would be wrong if one thought that they were not present in Europe. Their origin must be made clear. In Rachel’s youth, is to be noted that it was expressly said that Benjamin would not be born in Haran, but in Palestine (Genesis from 35.16 to 18). This shows that from a historical perspective Rachel’s offspring were very special. They broke off from the older order, resulting in new ideas, such as the reformation of the Roman Catholic Church and socialism to liberalism. The nature of this historical process remains in general obscure, because the sources available in this regard, leave us mostly in the dark.


It still leaves the origin of Benjamin yet to be determined. For indeed the name indicates, son of Jamin, Jamin ימין this is a son of Simeon. Benjamin is thus a branch of the Swabians or Alemanni. There was yet to be a very remarkable confirmation. When I happened to read in the “Rheinisch-Westfälische Zeitung”, a statistical design of the Imperial army I had realised before the war, the lineage of Benjamin. Here, the frequency of left-handedness was discussed, indicating that the soldiers of the other lands this physical peculiarity is kept within modest limits, however, they swelled in the southwest corner of the kingdom, where in the Bodensee, it was about 5% of the total. Then I recalled that the judge of the tribe of Benjamin, Ehud (Judges 3.0) was left-handed. Where at the conclusion of the Book of Judges (19-21) it tells of the almost total extermination of Benjamin, probably this most peculiar report refers to the heavy losses of the tribe at the downfall of Saul. This is important, as with every other historical interpretation of note: Whatever the case, this is important for among the 26000 soldiers of Benjamin were700 expert slingers, who were all left-handed (20.15 to 16)  that is almost 3% of the total, then why not accept other left-handers for other types of weapons. Thus we see in Benjamin and the Swabians this clearly defined physical feature, so it is as well to respect such evidence, if one is to examine the question of how far today's German tribal ancestors are related racially. It might seem a contradiction in respect of the name ימין Jamin, when interpreted it means right, which although awkward it means actually ‘of rights’. This is in accordance with the original name of Benjamin (Genesis 35.18 1) פך - אןכי ben-'oni son of my misfortunes, which can also mean: son of my strength which appear under the Suebi, Ariovistus and Haruden, and come from the vain grandson Benjamin אךד (IV Moses 26; m), the son of Gad אךןך countries linguistically approaching A’rod are the Norwegian Haruden.


Here it is not possible to discharge all of the issues concerning the tribes as the current resources available do not make this possible. The Burgundians are regarded mostly as an East Germanic tribe, but counted as a West Germanic tribe in essence because of their name, the Allemann and the dialect of the so-called Burgundians in western Switzerland and live in friendly accord with their neighbours on the borders who lived there under the name of Semnones and were at their borders even in East Germany. The Burgundians were apparently named after פדיעה b'ri'a, an aforementioned branch of Asher, but Baia is referred to as the son of Ephraim (I Chronicles 7:00, 23) and as a descendant of Benjamin (I Chron 8.13 to 16). Then the Burgundians are a connecting link between the East and West Germanic tribes, between the Vandals and the Swabians, so that both the above suppositions are correct.


Before we can discuss the relationship between Joseph and the Franks, it is first necessary to be aware of Reuben’s guilt of an immoral nature. The fact is that he went to Bilhah his father’s concubine (Genesis 35.22), and for that reason he was excluded from his right as the first-born, which then fell to Joseph. The question then is, how this observation can be explained in a historical context. It has been said that Reuben had more than the rest of the people kept in a cestuous relationship. It should be noted that it was the custom of an incestuous relationship, at the father's death of the possibility that the young son would take the stepmother to be his wife! However, this assumption is not likely in this case because the father was still living and the stepmother is not of the same or equivalent age as Ruben. For we have proved, but without documentation, the two suspects of rape by Ruben being Bilhah’s offspring.  Rather, I would assume that prior to the formation of an association between Jacob and Reuben, Reuben was overlord of Bilhah’s offspring. Remember what happened then was only later seen as unseemly. Perhaps originally the name Bilhah only then had a more negative meaning but probably not that of Leah’s offspring, because only that of their Greek name of Äoler had a negative meaning. Neither was it so with the Doric and Ionic names. Amongst the Low Germans it might be the name, Bitha, those who came under the leadership of the High German who were the Ribuarier. Whatever the case may be, because the whole nation is regarded as a family, so eventual debts have to be seen as family upheavals. The only question is how to historically interpret this view. Presumably it was the rebellion of Dathan and Abiram from the tribe of Reuben, together with a company from Korah who rebelled against Moses and the rule of reason. (See Numbers 16). The family history of the Old Testament, also expressed the fact that a sin of omission was committed by Reuben which was attributed to the sale of Joseph. The place where this event happened means להן Dothan (Genesis 37, 17; נתן the proper name is equivalent to Dathan


The tribe of Joseph is a branch of Ruben. Since their appearance in Europe from the time of Cicero as subordinates under the name of the Ribuarier: Franconia originate from one of Joseph's son Ephraim אפךים. There is a Syrian form of this name made by exchanging the R with I, from which comes the name Flemish (Vlamen). From around the birth of Christ, the present inhabitants of Belgium were living north of the Rhine, where they are described there under the name Salian Franks in the narrowest sense. The Salier reappear as a group within the Chamaven who were in the Hamaland, which is part of the eastern Netherlands and the adjacent Westphalia. This local name is a good indicator. Since the earliest times, the Egyptians have called their country Kem and the bitter lakes were known as Kem-Wer, In Hebrew, this kem appears as תם Cham; which is Noah's son Ham; we are all so familiar with Noah's son Ham. Accordingly, Hamaland is called after the Egyptian art of alloying metals and compounds including chemical products, to this day in the land of Egypt so to say, because it has at an inland lake with brackish water, today's Zuyder Zee being the counterpart to the Bitter Lakes. Its Roman name is Lacus Flevo Vlamensee. The name יוטף Joseph comes from the Usipiern (Usipern), Asaph (Genesis 30,24). The Usipier appear in history together with the Tenchterern who are descended from Ephraim's son Ταναχ which the Greek translation of the Bible writes it correctly, in Hebrew the name is written as Tahan ףחד. Closely related to Usipiern and Tenchterern are the Tubanti and Amsivarier. The name Tubanti actually is 2 provinces (probably the same as Bant פכה banth later פה bath daughter), this would indicate a relationship close with Joseph and the Usipiern likewise with Ephraim and Manasseh. However, the Amsivarier in Sauerland and western Rhineland with the riverlet Sauer in Luxembourg have a stronger relationship with the Ribuariern The name I want to dissect is Amsivarier. am= עם people, so that Sivarier is the real name, it is maintained by the tribe’s occupation of its homeland as Suerland, Sauerland and Sauer whose name I find to be derived from the daughter of Ephraim שאךה še'ra (I Chronicles 7:24).  Briefly mentioned here, the history of Jacob and Joseph have been deeply connected with the Joseph’s Frankish descendants. They were the core of what we can call the Old Testament Germanic tribes.


Now we have to consider a large group of the Franks: chatting, Chattuarier, Batavian, and their collateral branches namely, the Kaninefaten, Marsaken and Sturies. The Chattuarier are characterized by their very name as tribal relatives of the chat, so too are the Batavian calling themselves descendants of the chat. All of these tribes live in a vast area of the Rhön of Hesse, Ruhr, Rhine and on up to the North Sea. To explain this, we especially have to look at their relations to the peoples in Haran, in northern Mesopotamia, especially Armenia where the Hittites lived. The Assyrians called them Chatti, chet to the Egyptians and in the Old Testament חה Chti, without any vowels - plural חהיפ Chittim.  The Hittites are a people with pronounced physical feature, which is extenuated in the physical characteristics of Jews. During the 18th and 19 Dynasty of Egypt the Pharaoh Ramses II was enmeshed in great wars of oppression, with them. Now, the strange thing is, that it was the foreign Aryans, or more exactly the Iranians which include the real Persians, who were the ruling class over the Hittites in its capital Haran. For some time these Aryans also overwhelmed the Palestinians and formed the ruling aristocracy. These relations were found only during the most recent period and have been of crucial importance for the Israelite and Germanic tribes who came in the wake of the Aryans. A retinue of the Aryans from Haran, even reached over Palestine to Egypt and Because they came from the country of the Hittites, one named themselves many times so. Therefore the names Chatten and Chattuarier apply, which is from a collateral form of the name of chat that is today's name for Hesse. The projection of these circumstances clarifies the name of the Batavian, for it proves that all those in question are descended  from פהףאכ Bethuel who was the father of Rebecca, the wife of Isaac and mother of Jacob, and by Laban is the grandfather of Leah and Rachel, who was one of the most important members of the Israelite Germanic family of nations. Had one always interpreted the marriage of Rebekah to Isaac as a reinforcement of the oldest Abrahamic Group from Haran so we see the universality of the family group which enables one to understand why the Ribuarier, that is Reuben got his name from דנכה ribqa, as Rebekka is called in the Hebrew. The sub-tribe of the Bataver, the Kaninefaten will  presumably be called after Canaan; the medieval name of their country was Kinnehem = פננן kena'an.


A difficult question, that was not previously solvable with previous knowledge, clears itself up here.  In the European Hittite country, to use that expression again, in addition there is a softening of a special word for water course apa, opa, ipa, abbreviated pe and  in High German, Affa etc., for example, near my home Aprath, is the source location of the Düssel, further down it is Dornap, then Hespertal, Valley of the Hesperides of the Beech Creek, after Hagen to the Ennepe, Milspe etc. Such an extremely large number of names can not be explained as being German. For the Latin word aqua - water is German Ache, aha, abbreviated a. That is, the plural of water is ap in Aryan, compare this with the Iranian lightning God apâm and napât being the scion of water, ie, the water from the clouds conceived in a flash. Our word comes from the Haran ‘apa’ and comes from the Germanic Hittites and now incorporated into German. We have three tribal names, where the Hebrew r is interchangeable with the Germanic l, so we note that similarly this change can equally lead us back to the Syrians, Egyptians and Iranians’.


Similar trains of thought guide us to the most important overall name of Israel to נעקב, ja'qob. The Old Testament name is derived from עקב 'aqcb heel (Genesis 25, 26; 27.36; Hosea 12:4). This can be explained, but one must assume that the Iranians were Haran Persians, that is Parsis in their own language. Since Farse is discernible as heel in Germanic languages, so the translation yielded the name Jacob in the Hebrew. So the Israelite and Germanic tribes appeared in the wake of the Persians. As descendants of Haran, they took their name from the sovereign people of that land, just as later the Ostrogoths after the royal house Amelungen, the Franks were named after Charles the Great. (Kärlinge.) Several people take their tribal names from the Persians. In the Deborah songs Israelite warriors are called the pherason פדון that corresponds to the Germanic tribe of the Frisians, who are subject to Judah. Furthermore, the name of a tribe or a class of pre-Israelite population is פרי 'pherissi. Also to be taken into consideration is Judah’s son פרוי pherez, maybe even drop the final consonant-אפדין Ephraim.  The phonetic changes are indicative of the usual folk etymologies. Now the name Jacob himself also appears alongside the name Judah, namely as “Angels”, “fisher”, which is derived from one of God's name Ingwo, and corresponds well with `יעקוב ja’qob. It is very significant that in the southern region of Judah that fishing appears, as it indicates the lex et Angliorum Werinorum, hoc est Thuringorum. It is now the name Yehuda יהףךה to bring God's name in connection with הדד hod divine majesty, which yields the usual form of the name יהד jahod. Now, the name means God's Jehova as in the Hebrew names with a final d are deleted, just as we pronounce, יהל and יהף jaho and jahu. Thus Judah is named after Israel’s God. Further it appears in the overall name of the people that is Jacob, a part of Judah, together with the Angles and Frisians.


Now, however, only the northern section are regularly called Jutes, that is, Judah, the southern were merely the Juthungen descendants of the Jutes. This produced the oldest formation of people into a group: built on a belief in Jehovah and were first one under the name of Jacob and Judah in this group of the Jutes, Angles and Frisians, whose language appears in the early emerging Christian era as a special group of the Western Germanic tribes. Next a mass of weaker people as a separate tribal formation deriving their identity from the feminine name of Leah, then appeared alongside them. This section of Leah derived originally from Jacob or Judah’s tribe so being alongside, took the name Juthungen while the other two sections of Leah’s tribes remained somewhat independent and were known as Schwabians and Bavarians, one of them Bavaria is special because it preserves and indicates Leah or Levy. Round about the same time as the appearance of Judah, a second group carved out an equal position, being the firstborn of their mother Rebecca, Ruben as the Ribuarier. Further development occurred by the infusion of two small remnants of Issachar and Zebulon who consider themselves to be independent and who were descended from Jacob’s concubine. Of utmost importance is the fact that Leah in its original sense agrees with the High German. If Judah is counted to Leah, this would then presumably apply to the associated branches of the Juthungen, while those of Low German Reuben will not be considered further. Finally, Reuben himself as well as Simeon maintains a rivalry towards Judah and his protégés, among the Germanic tribes of the Rachel tribes of Joseph and Benjamin, which is reflected in the sharp contrast between the Franks and the Swabians. Within certain limits, one could consider the presence of Joseph as a collection of Low German nationalities. From the Old Testament, this situation is obviously brought about by the influence of Joseph, where he appears as a noble and generous man while Judah as vile. Just think of Joseph's sale or Judah’s disgusting annoyances and that of his family, as described by Genesis 38. Such odious reporting has its counterpart in calls for elections.


The progenitor's other name, ישדאם jisra'el, is specifically marked as being much younger. Generally it has a tribal connotation that can be popularly interpreted as: God arguing. This indubitably seems the correct view, yet it cannot be justified. For ישדאם jigra'el cannot be disassociated from שבה שרי - sara and Saraj, as Abraham's wife was called. The origin of this name goes beyond the frame of reference available to us. The name Israel in particular indicates Rachel’s family. It corresponds with שדי śaraj from the permutation of the r to l among the Germanic tribes as Salier, one of the most important names of the Franks.


Now we have an important inclusive name, that of the Germanic tribes. The name stuck at least originally, especially to the left Rhineland tribes at the beginning of our era but later changed to that of Gaul. However, then there is the question of the selfsame contradiction of the Germanic tribes, who have led Caesar who was infamous for the execution of Germanic tribes, namely the Eburones, who were not a Germanic tribe but Gauls. To explain the name Germanic, one must start from a country whose name is Haran מכי minni (Jer. 51.22), which is said with the prefix Armenia. For it was from here that Abraham came to Canaan as a stranger, as in גד ger to dwell. גך - מני = germinni - Germane, that is Armenia and its name means stranger. Since the Persians have also stayed in Haran, it also bears the name of their tribes Τερμάνιοι; possibly that of our ancestors, whose names the ruling Persians have borrowed.


There is apparently some evidence for the Semitic origin of Israel. First, the genealogy in Genesis 1. However, to begin our questioning, consideration has to be given to the 7th Century perspective. That is, can the linguistics of Judaism as well as the Syrians and Arabs be placed together with Israel as on the other hand so can the Babylonians and Canaanites and for reasons we need not discuss so Ham is connected to the Egyptians. Probably not too much weight should be applied to the number of Arab tribes as being the sons of Abraham through Ishmael and Keturah as stated in (Genesis 21; 25.1-6). This information probably owes its origin to the circumcision of Arabs. Note that Ishmael was circumcised according to Arab custom for 13 year olds (Genesis 17, 25).  Great emphasis has been placed on Abraham's discharge from the Babylonian city of Ur, which has been confirmed for us by successful excavations of the greatest significance (Genesis 11, 26-32). Additionally in Babylonia, one has demonstrated a Canaanite and Hebrew speaking population and thus identifying the name, including Abram. Indeed, but for this being the origin of the Israelite and Germanic tribes the message unusable, because the progenitor of the people is not called Abram but Abraham; the form of Abram is merely a popular interpretation. Then, the city of Ur absolutely doesn't have any meaning for Israel and the ancient Germans.­ Then the city of Ur has absolutely no meaning for Israel and the Germanic tribes. Understandably for them it was not Babylon, but Egypt that appears as a crucial cultural factor. For Haran is expressly described as Abraham’s homeland. It is also his nephew Lot’s son, described his brother as a son of Haran Nahor. The name is probably נהלד which is Nachor, Nahor for נהלד, i.e. the man of Mesopotamia, therefore Haran. Ur’s use can be interpreted in other ways. One of the most important people of Canaan were the Amorites, who have won great fame and influence through the creation of Babylon as a city, which are displayed in cuneiform in Palestine as a result of their rule. It is understandable, therefore, that the wily Kalman Amorites regarded themselves as descendants just as their co-inhabitants in Babylonia. The Israelites relationship to Ur was only through the Amorites for it is obvious that the Canaanite influence on them was very considerable, to the great chagrin of the prophets, who have always been zealous against such mental dependence.


Now what does the Old Testament say about the physical and linguistic differences between the original Israelites and the Canaanites, with whom they mingled? To bring this to the fore; it was very little, which may have been caused by the involuntary impression that Israel would have in principle belonged to the same ethnic group as the Canaanites. Such a conclusion is not justified.


One should read some older historical work on Austria: how in contrast it has little about the Habsburg countries nationality. Similarly it is so difficult when note is taken of the Romanisation of the Germanic tribes in France, Italy and Spain. There are revealed occasional random messages and their significance is that they only go to sharpening our sense of history. In our case the Old Testament can be considered as a drama, where the members of different nations speak the same language. Saul can be cited for the size of the Israelites, in contrast to the descendants of the Canaanites themselves, who towered head and shoulders above all the people (I Sam. 10:23), followed by David’s band of heroes, who could do their deeds probably only because of their size (II Sam . 21.15 to 22, 23.8 to 39). For light skin colour, the name speaks of Jacob's father-in-law, Laban, who was called White. Sharpness of eyes to death should really be good for the leading personalities as one might assume with Israel’s leaders such as Isaac, Jacob and Eli, but they went blind in old age, Moses was considered as an exceptional case (Numbers 34:7). There can be no specific talk of blue eyes as Hebrew has no word for blue. In a pictorial representation of Israel we have on a stone relief depicting Jehu’s tribute and homage to the Assyrian king around 840 BC. Here appears the outspoken Jewish, i.e. Canaanite type. Additionally to this it was Jehu who on his accession wiped out the ruling classes in a Bolshevik way, that is, the descendants of the Germans. Presumably, the Assyrian artist of Jehu’s messenger was not seen in the camp, but in Nineveh as a member of his own people, who were shown looking as Canaanites. The other portrayal of Israel is very uncertain, as also with: after the death of Solomon around 875 BC. Pharaoh Shishak looted numerous places in Canaan. At a temple wall, Egyptian artists have rendered the names of places by men who carry on the chest a label with a name for each occasion. Their appearance may not be Jewish, so therefore the style that artist is only emblematic, people did not want to represent Israelites as racially true for also it could not with the general decay of that art.


Other than these poor sources two historical records have to be noted. Cremation was nowhere prevalent in the East. They buried their dead. It was only the Iranian who put bodies out for the many wild animals. A mixture of both can be seen as the burial customs of the Patriarchs in a cave near Hebron. One simply put the corpse on the ground in the Iranian manner, followed by the closing of that part of the cave in conformity with the funeral procedures which were similar to the burial of Persian kings at Persepolis. However, Jabe’s men burned the bodies of Saul and his sons (I Sam. 31,8-1:3), similarly the body of Asa, the great-grandson of Solomon in Jerusalem solemnly was burnt on a huge pile of wood amid fragrant herbs (II Chron 16:14). Here we have before us a Germanic custom. Following a clue given Jeremiah (34.5) that this custom has been kept by all the kings of Judah.


In the genealogical table of nations עבך ‘Eber’ after whom the Eburones are called, as an ancestor of Abraham (Genesis 10.21-21). The Israelites were as a rule called Hebrews by foreigners and in this respect the application of the name Eber is very remarkable; this fact is reinforced by the fact that Shem being the son of Noah, as father is to be seen of all the sons of Eber. Joktan פבג and Peleg  נמטז  appear as children of Eber. These two have to be considered as near relatives of the Israelite and Germanic tribes, as such, only the Gauls πολύς are in question, many are called Poles after this word in a derived form: Polak. Polak is equivalent under the laws of the Germanic sound shift the falahi (West and East) Falen, so the name means simply: people. Bearing in mind the word Polak: People appear in the Old Testament as peleg פבנ. To see one פבנ Palage clan and פגנה pelugga clan. This corresponds with the interchange of p and b to give people the name of Belgians; Belga פבנה pelugga. יבטו joqtan is called the younger one and means first ­or the most recent son. The placing together of Joktan with the South Arabian tribes is indeed not to be assessed differently from other Arabic tribes descended from Abraham. Now appears an additional branch of the Gaul, as Galli minores, or as one could say, the Aquitanier, that is Joktan’s children. However, the main group of the Gauls, in actuality, that of Celt, has yet to arrive. In order to be able to understand the Walehen names it is necessary to explain a special linguistic feature of the Gallic: The p as an initial letter and where it appears between vowels is removed. This striking fact explains the Germanic sound shift: which converts p into f, and write this f as v and then speak of v as a semi-vowel w, thus we have the precursor to the peculiarities of the Gaulish language, and finally, this semi-vowel in Celtic is completely suppressed. Polak is from the Germani: falahi and then Gallic: walah (i).


From Polak, פבכ was peleg with its palatal pronunciation of the final consonant פבשהים pelistim the Philistines, for they are Gauls. Therefore, they were iron workers as their relatives in Europe are. In the East there were certain residents of eastern Asia Minor and Armenia, that is the Chalyber, and Chaldians, who were heavily involved in the iron trade. Later these Chaldians were called Galatians - Gauls. Therefore the double­ designation of a giant Philistine warrior Goliath גביה, 1 Sam 17,4; II Sam. 21,19,)  The Philistine giants of David's time all originated from the city of Gath (II Sam. 21,22). According to the book of Joshua (11.22). The only giants left were in Philistine cities of Gaza, Gath and Ashdod. They are named the children of עכק "naq”. But this word means necklace, which is the torques, a characteristic feature of the Gallic knights in Europe. According to depictions of the Egyptians they were the Philistines, their long hair tied in a bundle, as we know from our ancient Germanic representations which is in accord with the report of Absalom (II Sam. 14:26; 18.9) which was the custom at the court of David. Names of Philistine cities are clearly Indo-European; עמךיו `eqron = άκρον άκρόπολις אשדלד 'agdod = to אשמביר άστν: 'agqelon, compare with scala table, so the name means “the castle”. The old Germanic tribes during the last centuries before Christ demonstrated in the most intimate relations with the Galls, as did Abraham and Isaac, (Genesis 20:26) with the Philistines, probably similar to the present relationship between the Germans and Gauls: The Germans were a branch of the Gauls, and is self evident that they are linguistically closely related The Gauls differed from the Germanic tribes in that they knew little or nothing of the Hebrew as they developed from the Egyptian language and education. The Gaul appears to be more ancient though lacking the genetic and intellectual heritage of Egypt and Canaan, it was probably this defect that caused them to succumb almost completely to the Romans and Germanic tribes.

In the exodus of Israel they are mentioned as accompanying aliens, (II Moses 12, 38), so they must have been the Gauls. They were called ךב עדב 'rab, ereb’ many Western, or European, as we would say.  Where did the departure aim for now? According to the text as in our current Old Testament, it was to face Canaan. But that is not a retrospective reinterpretation because only a fraction of the people found accommodation in the country of Jordan or maybe it would be correct to say, that they would hang on. It is with the appointment of Moses that an open country is spoken of, that is flowing with milk and honey, but this does not fit Canaan. For it is not open, but mountainous, honey did not play a very important role because of a lack of lime woods, still less a dairy industry and the resultant butter economy, so therefore this should be questioned, because ancient Canaan had been primarily a land of olives with their oil. However in contrast, the North German plain is in reality open country and earlier had large lime forests and meadows and pastures. It is strange how in the Old Testament it is related that Moses would not come into the Promised Land, but he did conquer the whole of East Jordan. Only one artificial legal title was created for Israel's invasion of Canaan indicated on the family tomb of the patriarchs, while Central Europe as the former residence of the people has been a lawful patrimony.


Do we recognize in the name Hamaland a memory of Egypt, there are several significant names which owe their origin to the area of Haran. First אשפני 'ask'nas (Jer. 51.27; Genesis 10, 3), a scenic designation of eastern Asia Minor and Armenia, a country with salt lakes. Now located in the vicinity of Central Europe, the only area with a similar kind of salt lakes, as the Mansfeld salt lakes of Ascania, today’s Aschersleben (a town in Germany). The Armenian Wansee has its named counterpart in the Swedish Wenersee, the other Armenian lake, Lake Urmia, is Warmland to the north of Wenersee. If the country was at the uppermost Tigris with both lakes Nairi, so it is with the Swedish landscape in the Wener and Wetter Lake country of the Njaren. But by all means the name of the two stream country Naharain is then found in the Netherlands. There, the Germanic tribes were again in a land between streams and therefore designated it as Naharain. They interpreted the word as: near the Rhine. Thus, this would give the name lasting power to remain the same forever. Maybe it is called also after the Brandenburg Rhin that lies between the Elbe and Oder in the middle of the Havel horse shoe also a distinct in Mesopotainia is most pronounced. Even the southern estuary, the river Waal, the Vahalis of old, is of Germanic origin and derives instead from aha water instead of with initial w, it is rich in water in contrast to the old Rhine because of a great tidal wave. It is also strange that: in the song of Deborah is the root of Ephraim עמבק amaleq is indicated for in Judges 12:15, it states that the tribal area in the middle of Canaan was called the Amalekite Mountains. One can interpret as a people on the עמבק Lek. Now European Ephraim, the tribe of the Franks is on the Lek.


This fact lets one recognise that the Germanic tribes originally owned the Rhineland. If anything it proves what we already know about the seats of the Germanic tribes, the fact the Germanic tribes have claimed it from the beginning of our era, which they had taken a millennium earlier. Because it corresponds to the natural distribution of the branches of the family tree of the Old Testament. This is what is told in the book of Joshua which relates the scheduled distribution of land to individual tribes which became a reality in Europe, apparently in contrast to Kalman the middle of our continent was void of people. Germanic tribes and Gauls could therefore spread out over the gigantic country under the authority of the tribes and clans. It is extremely remarkable, that older tribal relationships between Germanic tribes and Gaul were taken into consideration. Instead of villages only separate farmsteads were lived in. Since both nations were still numerically weak, so at first only the most favourable locations were occupied that is the lowest points around lakes, river banks and in clearings; from then on the adjoining areas would be opened up with a steady strong increase in population until the last pre-Christian centuries when with overpopulation there would be an urge to migrate.


The main outcome is revealed by the fact that the Germanic tribes in the second millennium BC, became a people and a state. Later on, the overall government disintegrates into its parts and sections. The usual explanation for such a situation is if one consults the spatial spread of a people. This comprises a core of truth, but has little to do with it. For widely scattered in Russia, Transylvania, southern Brazil, Palestine, etc., there are Germans, but in the bordering countries such as in the Netherlands and Luxembourg, there are no Germans, and even no mention of tribal differences. Are all the Germanic tribes at first a people, but not so later? This fact is true only if based on the Old Testament interpretation. Israel was a series of strains, but remained unified only by their common faith in Jehovah. While the Germanic tribes forgot the God of their fathers to a point that it became only a shadowy memory, and so to become completely heathen to disbanded their state nationality and all its attributes. If the Israelites in the East might have incurred a lot of guilt, it is their fame that they won by solely serving Jehovah which formed the necessary basis for Christianity.


On a smaller scale, the unity of people and the Germanic state have been renewed in the German empire. It is worth noting that the Franks and Saxons have been the main driving force and that the tribes that these already in ancient times were the leaders, namely, Reuben, Joseph and Judah. But more significant was that again there was a decisive renewal of faith in Jehovah in the form of Christianity. So miserably was the form of Christianity at the conversion of Clovis for the Merovingian and Karolingian which created the basis of the over all government. Over all, Otto the Great was the greatest statesman of our people, he alone instinctively sensed how to maintain the unity of people and the state and to create a new, unique entity that of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation based on Christianity and the Church. His achievement for the Germans could only have been achieved through advanced training and fundamental ideas.


The most lamentable appearance of our state is because our senior politicians are generally without a clear understanding of how the kingdom can be maintained intact. Even Bismarck had not understood this, otherwise he would not have instigated the culture war in the way that he did. So very casually he just pointed to the prior medieval battles between Emperor and Pope. In reality, the Empire also meant a renewal of those old disputes, so is the Saga of “Kyffhäuser” rooted in it. Therefore, at the same moment as the high-church party was present on the spot where it was able to sound a cheer for the new emperor. The centre is the shadow of the Empire. At this place the thread was picked up where it had been let fall during the inter-regnum. 600 years was simply nothing in any case for the seemingly new party. It was as our Old Testament based on folk tales as described by sleeping beauty: the cook who had been in the process of teaching the apprentice and hit him with a slap on the face when the century old magic sleep left him.


Israel was held together only by faith in Jehovah, the kingdom only through Christianity. We are just the chosen people of God. This is not an empty word of arrogance, but of the deepest concern. Because we are different from all the nations of the earth. The Englishman, the Frenchman, for example, whether bourgeois or socialist, is nationality through and through. The German is first cosmopolitan. In the long run he may fail to achieve his destiny despite the laudable efforts of so the so-called national parties. The Germans did not succeed to be German in order to succumb to the French and English ways. We have to take Otto the Great as a model and replicate his work with the resources which are available at present: Through Christianity to Germanness. Religion is a private matter, and this statement can be applied to fit American conditions. To the German it represents the culmination of the absurd. Our mission is to serve the empire and to pick up the cross of Christ. For, as we are bound by our actions in the historical past circumstances of primitive times which teaches us in an unsurpassable way, Goethe:


As to your day that lent you the world,
The sun was in salutation of the planets,
Are forthwith and thrived on and on
According to the law by which you made.
So you must be, you cannot escape yourself;
So said already sibyls and prophets;
And dismembered no time and no power
Embossed form that develops as it lives.





This translation is based on a translation found on the Paul Senstius Project at Home            Articles